hypoplasia n : underdevelopment of an organ because of a decrease in the number of cells
- being hypoplastic
Hypoplasia is underdevelopment or incomplete development of a tissue or organ. Although the term is not always used precisely, it properly refers to an inadequate or below-normal number of cells. Hypoplasia is similar to aplasia, but less severe. It is the opposite of hyperplasia (too many cells).
The name is derived from the Greek: hypo, meaning low, and plasis, which refers to molding or forming. The adjective form is hypoplastic.
Hypoplasia can be present in any tissue or organ. It is descriptive of many medical conditions such as:
- breasts during puberty.
- testes in Klinefelter's syndrome.
- ovaries in Fanconi anemia, gonadal dysgenesis, trisomy X
- thymus in DiGeorge syndrome.
- labia majora in popliteal pterygium syndrome.
- cerebellum caused by mutation in the Reelin gene.
- tooth caused by oral pathology, such as Turner's hypoplasia.
- chambers of the of the heart in hypoplastic left heart syndrome and hypoplastic right heart syndrome
- optic nerve in optic nerve hypoplasia
- sacrum in sacral agenesis
- facial muscle in asymmetric crying facies
- thumb from birth.
- lungs, often as a result of oligohydramnios during gestation or the existence of congenital diaphragmatic hernia.
hypoplasia in French: Hypoplasie
hypoplasia in Italian: Ipoplasia
hypoplasia in Polish: Hipoplazja
hypoplasia in Portuguese: Hipoplasia
hypoplasia in Russian: Гипоплазия
hypoplasia in Ukrainian: Гіпоплазія